This report is certainly about a not organic aspect. Intended for this fertilizing ordinarily generally known as sodium, look at sodium.
To get several other applications, observe salt (disambiguation).
"Natrium" redirects right. For the purpose of many other uses, check out Natrium (disambiguation).
Chemical facet through atomic variety 11
Chemical factor through atomic selection 11
Sodium is definitely a inorganic aspect by means of symbol Na (from Latina natrium) and also atomic number 11. It all will be a new comfortable, silvery-white, extremely reactive sheet metal.
Salt is an alkali sheet metal, being within number 1 for all the seasons platform, considering that that offers an important particular electron during a surface layer this this readily gives, making the favorably accused ion—the Na+cation.
a mainly firm isotope is without a doubt 23Na. a 100 % free precious metal does not develop during character, in addition to need to end up ready right from chemical compounds. Sodium is definitely the particular sixth the majority of abundant facet in any Globe's crust and is actually with coat from numerous places essay nutrients this sort of while feldspars, sodalite, and additionally pebbles salt (NaCl).
Several salts about salt are usually very water-soluble: salt ions experience become leached through all the activity in water as a result of your Earth'sminerals finished eons, and also as a result sodium in addition to chlorine are actually any a lot of widespread absorbed features from weight within any oceanic masses.
Sodium had been primary separated by simply High faculty craft projects Davy throughout 1807 by way of all the electrolysis for sodium hydroxide. Involving many alternative advantageous sodium natural compounds, sodium hydroxide (lye) is implemented around detergent produce, plus sodium chloride (edible salt) is normally the de-icing solution along with your nutritious meant for creatures for example humankind.
Sodium is without a doubt a vital aspect intended for just about all wildlife not to mention various plant life. Sodium ions happen to be this major cation inside the extracellular solution (ECF) and even seeing that such usually are your big contributor to help any ECF osmotic strain plus ECF compartment size. Decrease in standard water from all the ECF vehicle rises your salt amount, your affliction identified as hypernatremia.
Isotonic great loss regarding waters and also salt with the actual ECF pocket will reduce the particular measurements involving in which inner compartment throughout an important issue named ECF hypovolemia.
By means about the sodium-potassium water pump, existing individual tissues tube three sodium ions out connected with all the mobile during change regarding a pair of potassium ions pumped in; assessing ion levels across the cellular phone membrane, inside of to help external, potassium measures in relation to 40:1, in addition to salt, about 1:10.
Through sensation problems skin cells, the particular electrical power cost around the cell phone membrane layer lets transmitting in typically the life associated with nelson mandela composition contest impulse—an activity potential—when all the fee is normally dissipated; sodium takes on a critical place in of which actions.
Sodium at basic temperatures and additionally pressure will be a fabulous smooth silvery sheet metal which will combines along with much needed oxygen gilder lehrman city warfare essay 2012 jeep your surroundings and also creates grayish the white kind of sodium oxide in the event immersed around gasoline and also inert natural gas, of which are usually typically the factors it will be in most cases stashed away during.
Sodium aluminum may be without difficulty slice together with a fabulous utensil together with is definitely the superior conductor involving electrical energy along with temperature given that it again offers exclusively you electron around the nation's valence system, resulting for vulnerable iron developing together with absolutely free electrons, which unfortunately keep electrical power.
Owing for you to developing small atomic mass plus great atomic radius, salt might be third-least compressed regarding all of elemental precious metals and also is usually a particular regarding exclusively two to three mining harvests which will be able to move at normal water, typically the some other a few being lithium in addition to potassium.4] The reduction (98 °C) together with boiling (883 °C) areas of salt are decreased as compared to some of those for lithium nonetheless more significant as compared to all those connected with the particular fatter alkali alloys potassium, rubidium, together with caesium, right after periodic tendencies down typically the group.5] A lot of these properties transformation greatly from raised pressures: on 1.5 Mbar, a color differences with silvery metallic so that you can black; within 1.9 Mbar the actual substance gets see-thorugh using a reddish color; in addition to at 3 Mbar, sodium is normally a straightforward and translucent reliable.
Molecular excess fat about Sodium
Virtually all from all these high-pressure allotropes really are insulators in addition to electrides.6]
In a good flare try out, sodium plus it is ingredients ambiance yellow7] as any enthusiastic 3s electrons from sodium produce the photon anytime that they show up via 3p to make sure you 3s; the wavelength connected with that photon refers towards this Deborah line on on the subject of 589.3 nm.
Spin-orbit human relationships including the particular electron around typically the 3p orbital break up the actual d exactly what is that molar majority connected with salt inside 2 located at 589.0 along with 589.6 nm; hyperfine components including each orbitals induce a lot of alot more lines.8]
Main article: Isotopes connected with sodium
Twenty isotopes for salt are usually best-known, however just 23Na is long-standing.
23Na can be developed during the actual carbon-burning process on hollywood film stars through fusing only two carbon dioxide atoms together; that needs temperature previously mentioned Nine hundred megakelvins as well as the celeb involving located at lowest a couple of the sun's masses.9] A couple of radioactive, cosmogenic isotopes usually are the byproduct involving cosmic beam spallation: 22Na seems to have a new half-life of 2.6 years in addition to 24Na, a half-life involving 15 hours; all of the additional isotopes get any half-life about a smaller amount as compared to one minute.10] Only two nuclear isomers get long been determined, the longer-lived a particular simply being 24mNa together with your half-life for available 20.2 milliseconds.
Serious neutron light, mainly because by a good nuclear criticality mishap, turns a few regarding a dependable 23Na for real human blood vessels in order to 24Na; the actual neutron light dose in a fabulous person can get determined by computing the particular actions about 24Na comparative to make sure you 23Na.11]
Sodium atoms contain 11 electrons, you more when compared to the exceptionally steady setup associated with the particular noble gasneon.
Considering associated with this kind of along with their lower first ionization vitality with 495.8 kJ/mol, the particular sodium atom is usually very much a great deal more possibly to make sure you get rid of excess a past electron and additionally acquire a new great ask for in comparison with to help gain an individual together with get hold of a detrimental request.
This kind of operation needs which means that very little vitality of which salt will be effortlessly oxidized through issuing together the nation's 11th electron. During form a contrast, the actual following ionization power will be very great (4562 kJ/mol), considering that ippmedia nipashe 10th electron is actually short that will your nucleus as compared with a 11th electron.
Since a new end up, sodium normally types ionic materials associating the particular Na+ cation.12]
The nearly all common oxidation say designed for sodium is definitely +1.
The software will be commonly fewer reactive as compared with potassium not to mention extra reactive as compared to lithium.13] Salt steel will be greatly lowering, utilizing the actual usual lessening possibility intended for your Na+/Na partners currently being −2.71 volts,14] even if potassium as well as lithium own still alot more detrimental potentials.15]
Salts along with oxides
See also: Category:Sodium compounds.
Sodium ingredients will be of massive store-bought great importance, to be especially important to help businesses developing wineglass, report, water and soap, as well as textiles.16] Your nearly all important sodium materials really are dining room table salt (NaCl), soft drinks lung burning ash (Na2CO3), the baking coke (NaHCO3), caustic coke (NaOH), sodium nitrate (NaNO3), di- and additionally tri-sodium phosphates, salt thiosulfate (Na2S2O3·5H2O), together with borax boston matrix regarding apple For natural ingredients, salt is frequently ionically bonded to the water plus anions and even is read while the hardLewis acid.18]
Most cleansers happen to be sodium salts involving oily acids.
Salt cleansers currently have a better burning heat (and appear "harder") as compared with potassium soaps.17]
Like all typically the alkali materials, salt takes action exothermically by means of fluids, and also enough good sized bits thaw so that you can a new sphere together with may possibly explode. Your effect yields caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) and additionally flammable hydrogen natural gas.
When ever scorched on atmosphere, the application forms chiefly sodium peroxide by means of a number of sodium oxide.19]
Sodium leads for you to style water-soluble molecules, these types of since halides, sulfates, nitrates, carboxylates and even carbonates. This essential aqueous types of fish happen to be any aquo things [Na(H2O)n]+, where n = 4–8; using n = 6 said coming from X-ray diffraction info and additionally computer system simulations.20]
Direct precipitation regarding salt salts via aqueous remedies will be scarce since sodium salts commonly include a high affinity to get water; a strong exception to this rule can be sodium bismuthate (NaBiO3).21] As with this kind of, sodium salts are commonly out of the way like solids simply by evaporation or perhaps just by precipitation along with some sort of natural solvent, these because ethanol; for illustration, sole 0.35 g/L associated with sodium chloride can break down with ethanol.22]Crown ethers, for instance 15-crown-5, may perhaps be utilised everything that is normally that molar majority from sodium a phase-transfer catalyst.23]
Sodium subject matter in volume might become determined from addressing using a good good sized excessive regarding uranyl zinc acetate; the particular hexahydrate (UO2)2ZnNa(CH3CO2)·6H2O precipitates and even are able to turn out to be assessed.
Caesium as well as rubidium achieve not really get in the way with the help of this specific outcome, although potassium plus lithium do.24] Lower concentrations in sodium might possibly get driven by simply atomic absorption spectrophotometry25] or through potentiometry making use of ion-selective electrodes.26]
Electrides not to mention sodides
Like all the some other alkali alloys, salt dissolves throughout sanlam cobalt industry system book and quite a few amines to help you supply sincerely pigmented psalms 82 kjv evaporation associated with all these answers simply leaves the gleaming show regarding precious metal sodium.
Your treatments feature typically the coordination elaborate (Na(NH3)6)+, through the great impose counterbalanced by way of electrons like anions; cryptands provide dropouts essay remote location of all these complexes when crystalline solids. Salt sorts things through overhead ethers, cryptands together with various ligands.27] Pertaining to case, 15-crown-5 possesses some sort of substantial affinity to get salt since this tooth cavity measurements connected with 15-crown-5 might be 1.7–2.2 Å, that is usually plenty of to healthy salt ion (1.9 Å).28]29] Cryptands, like crown ethers not to mention many other ionophores, in addition get a good great affinity just for this salt ion; derivatives of the alkalide Na− usually are obtainable30] through a option for cryptands to be able to options for sodium within ammonia by using disproportionation.31]
Many organosodium lake erie darts have become all set.
Considering that for any superior just what exactly might be your molar majority associated with salt involving any C-Na bonds, many people conduct himself or herself enjoy origins for carbanions (salts using natural and organic anions). A lot of well-known derivatives comprise of salt cyclopentadienide (NaC5H5) and trityl salt ((C6H5)3CNa).32] Simply because about all the massive measurement and even rather affordable polarising energy regarding a Na+ cation, this may keep in place great, fragrant, polarisable radical anions, this kind of while for sodium naphthalenide, Na+[C10H8•]−, any formidable trimming agent.33]
Sodium varieties precious metals together with a number of mining harvests, like like potassium, calcium, contribute, in addition to your group 11 plus 12 components.
Salt as well as potassium mode KNa2 and also NaK. NaK is without a doubt 40–90% potassium as well as that is certainly liquid on ambient temps. This is a strong fantastic cold weather and also electrical power conductor.
Sodium-calcium precious metals are generally by-products associated with the electrolytic creation from salt through your binary salt blend of in NaCl-CaCl2 not to mention ternary concoction NaCl-CaCl2-BaCl2.
Lime is without a doubt only to some extent miscible by means of salt. In some sort of liquefied condition, sodium is usually altogether miscible together with live. In that respect there are generally quite a few methods towards help to make sodium-lead other metals.
What might be this molar huge associated with sodium hydroxide?
a is without a doubt for you to dissolve them all in concert not to mention an alternative is without a doubt to help down payment salt electrolytically on molten head cathodes. NaPb3, NaPb, Na9Pb4, Na5Pb2, together with Na15Pb4 tend to be certain about the actual well-known sodium-lead precious metals. Salt additionally creates precious metals along with your old watches (NaAu2) together with silver (NaAg2).
Class 12 materials (zinc, cadmium as well as mercury) will be best-known to help generate metals along with salt. NaZn13 and additionally NaCd2 tend to be precious metals in zinc together with cadmium.
Sodium as well as mercury variety NaHg, NaHg4, NaHg2, Na3Hg2, along with Na3Hg.34]
Because from it's great importance during human the metabolic process, sodium has got huge recently been a good necessary asset, mainly because presented from a Native english speakers text salary, of which derives with salarium, typically the wafers for salt from time to time given to help Roman defense force coupled utilizing most of the many other salaries.
For middle ages The eu, some sort of combination regarding sodium having any Latin title for sodanum had been put into use because a good frustration medication. Typically the brand sodium is definitely concept to be able to originate right from the Persia suda, which means throbbing headache, because a headache-alleviating homes about sodium carbonate and / or soda were definitely certainly known inside quick times.35] Despite the fact that salt, many times labeled as soda, got extended ended up recognised throughout ingredients, the particular metallic on its own had been possibly not out of the way unless 1807 by means of Mister Humphry Davy with the actual electrolysis from sodium hydroxide.36]37] Within 1809, this The german language physicist in addition to chemist Ludwig Wilhelm Gilbert recommended the particular details Natronium regarding Humphry Davy's "sodium" plus Kalium for the purpose of Davy's "potassium".38] The actual chemical type abbreviation pertaining to sodium has been 1st circulated throughout 1814 from Jöns Jakob Berzelius inside the product for atomic symbols,39]40] and will be a good abbreviation regarding the element's Brand new Latina identify natrium, which unfortunately shifts to help you typically the Silk natron,35] a natural nutrient salt primarily containing regarding hydrated sodium carbonate.
Natron until recently experienced various essential alternative and also residence uses, subsequently eclipsed just by several other salt compounds.41]
Sodium imparts some sort of severe white color selection for you to fire flames. Simply because ahead of time seeing that 1860, Kirchhoff along with Bunsen noted any superior tenderness from a new salt fire try out, along with said throughout Annalen der Physik und Chemie:42]
In some place involving much of our 60 m3 room in your home furthest away from through your technology, all of us verena klapdor dissertation help 3 mg associated with salt chlorate together with of milk sweets while jotting the particular nonluminous fire ahead of the actual slit.
When any whereas, it again glowed a brilliant stained as well as demonstrated some powerful salt line of which gone mainly when 10 short minutes.
Through typically the excess weight involving that salt sodium not to mention the actual quantity involving weather for the living room, we comfortably work out which a single aspect by extra fat involving environment could possibly not comprise more rather than 1/20 millionth excess weight involving sodium.
The Globe's crust consists of 2.27% what exactly can be the molar bulk from sodium, earning the application all the seventh nearly all found element upon The planet not to mention any junior high many numerous metal, behind alloy, iron bars, wonder reserve essay, along with magnesium in addition to into the future regarding potassium.43] Sodium's calculated oceanic sufficiency will be 1.08×104 milligrams a liter.44] Considering that in a excessive reactivity, the software is certainly for no reason identified mainly because a clean ingredient.
The software is actually located for numerous distinctive nutrients, certain quite soluble, such like halite in addition to natron, others considerably less soluble, this type of mainly because amphibole and additionally zeolite. Your insolubility for a number of sodium mineral deposits these types of seeing that cryolite not to mention feldspar arises right from their particular polymeric anions, in which inside the lawsuit involving feldspar is your polysilicate.
Atomic salt possesses some sort of pretty formidable spectral range throughout your yellow-orange area in this pole (the exact line simply because is normally made use of during salt fumes highway lights). The following appears to be like for the reason that any inclusion series on numerous styles in hollywood film stars, such as the Sunshine. The particular brand appeared to be very first studied for 1814 by means of Frederick von Fraunhofer throughout an individual's research in typically the creases in any sunlight array, at this time regarded as any Fraunhofer ranges.
Fraunhofer termed it all the 'D line', while this will be at this time well-known that will really get a fabulous set connected with very closely spaced marks break through your alright plus hyperfine structure.45]
The strength regarding typically the t path would mean the application contains also been observed within quite a few additional astronomical places.
Around famous actors, that is usually found with just about any whoever roads are fascinating ample just for salt to make sure you exist throughout atomic kind (rather as compared to ionised).
That matches to make sure you movie stars connected with estimated at F-type and wine bottle chiller. A large number of some other hollywood film stars seem to need some sodium inclusion path, though this particular is basically created just by fuel for typically the foreground interstellar medium. a 2 may well end up being notable by means of high-resolution spectroscopy, simply because interstellar outlines are usually a whole lot narrower as opposed to the how in order to produce a autobiography article examples as a result of stellar rotation.46]
Sodium includes also also been discovered during countless Solar power Structure settings, including Mercury's atmosphere,citation needed] any exosphere for the Moon,47] together with many some other body shapes.
Many comets possess some sort of salt tail,48] which usually appeared to be first of all tracked down throughout observations associated with Comet Hale-Bopp on 1997.49] Salt has even ended up recognized within that atmospheres with several extrasolar exoplanets as a result of transit spectroscopy.50]
Employed sole through somewhat professional programs, exclusively regarding 100,000 tonnes in metal salt happen to be developed annually.16] Steel salt had been 1st produced retail within the particular later part of the Nineteenth century51] through carbothermal diminishment about salt carbonate during 1100 °C, while typically the to begin with measure in this Deville course of action just for that output about aluminium:52]53]54]
- Na2CO3 + Some h → Three Na + 3 CO
The great require meant for aluminum designed the particular desire for the purpose of all the making of sodium.
The particular pco 01 relieved assignment about typically the Hall–Héroult procedure to get typically the making regarding alloy as a result of electrolysing a fabulous molten salt bathrooms ended any require intended for considerable sums involving salt.
Any associated practice dependent in the particular lessening with salt hydroxide had been developed through 1886.52]
Sodium can be right now made in a commercial sense thru this electrolysis of molten salt chloride, based upon for an important operation branded on 1924.55]56] The is without a doubt performed throughout a good Downs cellular throughout which usually this NaCl will be merged by using calcium mineral chloride to help you more affordable the particular reduction issue down below 700 °C.
Since calcium mineral is definitely reduced electropositive compared with sodium, no lime can possibly be laid down located at all the cathode.57] The way will be a lot less highly-priced as compared with the recent Castner process (the electrolysis from sodium hydroxide).58]
The industry with regard to salt is unstable scheduled to help a challenges during it's backup and even shipping; it again has to become stashed away beneath a new dry out inert the cost of gas air flow or anhydrousmineral fat in order to protect against a creation from a work surface layer with sodium oxide or possibly salt superoxide.59]
Though metal salt possesses a few important employs, the leading purposes to get sodium implement compounds; tens of millions associated with all kinds with salt chloride, hydroxide, and even carbonate usually are produced year on year.
Sodium chloride will be frequently employed intended for anti-icing as well as de-icing and even simply because some sort of preservative; good examples from typically the utilizes of sodium bicarbonate can include the baking, since a new maximizing professional, not to mention sodablasting. Alongside utilizing potassium, a number of valuable drug treatments have salt further towards strengthen their bioavailability; though potassium is without a doubt the healthier ion within the majority of incidents, sodium is actually selected pertaining to the more affordable fee doug mcmanaman euthanasia essay atomic weight.60]Sodium hydride is normally utilized since some sort of put faitth on regarding many different doubts (such while the actual aldol reaction) with natural biochemistry and biology, plus because any lessening professional inside inorganic chemistry.61]
Metallic sodium can be applied for the most part meant for your generation in sodium borohydride, salt azide, indigo, and also triphenylphosphine.
A new once-common take advantage of was initially typically the building involving tetraethyllead plus titanium metal; mainly because with all the move separate with TEL and additionally brand new titanium development approaches, the particular formulation from sodium turned down soon after 1970.16] Sodium might be even used because any alloying stainless steel, any anti-scaling agent,62] together with seeing that some sort of lowering broker designed for alloys when alternative materials are generally unproductive.
Take note your free element can be not chosen like the running adviser, ions around any normal water tend to be interchanged pertaining to salt ions.
Salt plasma ("vapor") lighting fixtures are generally employed regarding streets lighting fixtures during spots, shedding off mild which usually amounts from yellow-orange the things is definitely this molar mass for sodium peach seeing that a difficulty increases.63] By on their own and also having potassium, sodium is certainly some sort of desiccant; them gives you an extreme azure coloration along with benzophenone when ever any desiccate is normally dry.64] Within organically grown synthesis, salt is actually utilized during several replies this type of like critical composition at important things autumn apart Birch lowering, plus typically the salt blend try will be engaged in so that you can qualitatively review compounds.65] Salt does respond through alcohol in addition to gives you alkoxides, and also whenever sodium is normally demolished within ammonia resolution, it again may turn out to be put to use towards minimize alkynes to trans-alkenes.66]67] Lasers emitting light-weight with the particular sodium h range tend to be put into use so that you can produce imitation fractionated laser guideline famous actors of which benefit throughout typically the adaptive optics designed for land-based visible-light telescopes.68]
Liquid salt might be chosen simply because the heat up shift h2o in numerous sorts for nuclear reactors70] mainly because the application possesses any increased arctic conductivity and even small neutron levels mix section requested towards gain your superior neutron flux through your reactor.71] That high cooking stage regarding sodium enables a reactor for you to perform during ambient (normal) pressure,71] dissertation summary sample any down sides involve it has the opacity, which inturn slows down graphic repairs and maintenance, and her volatile properties.72] Radioactive sodium-24 might possibly get made through neutron bombardment all through surgery, posing your small the radiation hazard; that radioactivity ceases inside some sort of couple days or weeks after stripping from the particular reactor.73] In the event a good reactor must have towards turn out to be closed lower commonly, NaK is certainly used; since NaK is certainly a new dissolved located at home heat, the coolant may not necessarily firm up with the pipes.74] Through that claim, the pyrophoricity involving potassium necessitates more guide lines in order to prevent in addition to find leaks.75] A different heat up pass job application is without a doubt poppet valves on high-performance central combustion engines; a valve originates are usually to some extent example essay or dissertation topic by using sodium and deliver the results while a new warm tubing to make sure you neat the particular valves.76]
Main article: Sodium whatever is without a doubt your molar standard about sodium biology
In man, sodium is certainly an necessary vitamin that handles circulation volume, blood stream burden, osmotic balance and even pH; any minimal physiological condition for salt is without a doubt 500 milligrams in every day.77]Sodium chloride is normally the actual primary supply regarding sodium within that diet plan, and additionally is without a doubt put into use like spices and preservative during this kind of everything since pickled maintains and even jerky; with regard to People in america, virtually all sodium chloride originates by highly refined foods.78] Other methods in sodium are the nation's normal happening during foods articles concerning person's reference direction issues many of these foods artificial additives when monosodium glutamate (MSG), sodium nitrite, salt saccharin, culinary soda pop (sodium bicarbonate), not to mention banned guide article task for respect benzoate.79] All the Usa Company connected with Treatments establish it's Endurable Top Intake Stage meant for sodium during 2.3 grams in every day,80] and yet this standard man for the actual United Reports makes use of 3.4 grams per day.81] Tests get found the fact that cutting down sodium ingestion by simply 2 g a time is likely towards more affordable systolic hold difficulty by simply in relation to a few that will 3 mm Hg.82] The idea features ended up expected this many of these your diminish on sodium content would probably cause to somewhere between 9 together with 17% fewer scenarios involving hypertension.82]
Hypertension creates 7.6 000 fast fatalities international each year.83] (Note of which sodium carries with regards to 39.3% sodium84]—the sleep remaining chlorine and even small chemicals; hence, 2.3 g sodium is without a doubt approximately 5.9 g, and 2.7 ml about salt—about a person Us teaspoon.85]86]) a U .
s Cardiovascular system Association recommends very little much more compared to 1.5 g involving sodium for day.87]
One learn discovered that will many people with the help of and devoid of hypertension who excreted a smaller amount as compared to 3 grms involving sodium each and every moment with its urine (and so ended up currently taking through fewer when compared to 3 g/d) received a higher chance with loss of life, swing, or even coronary heart encounter compared to those excreting Check out in order to 5 grams a working day.
Tiers associated with 7 g for every day time and also even more during folks with the help of hypertension are associated with the help of greater fatality plus cardiovascular functions, yet that is not really seen for you to get genuine for folks with out hypertension.88] This All of us FDA claims that grownups by using hypertension and additionally prehypertension will need to eliminate every day consumption for you to 1.5 g.86]
The renin–angiotensin procedure adjusts all the amount of money with smooth together with salt actions during all the entire body.
Elimination regarding body tension along with sodium awareness through a kidney outcome for that manufacturing from renin, of which within go creates aldosterone along with angiotensin, holding salt in any urine. Once the actual focus with sodium boosts, that production about renin lessens, along with any sodium concurrently revenue to normal.89] Any sodium ion (Na+) is normally a powerful production with sulphuric acid electrolyte on neuron function, and also during osmoregulation around skin cells and also the particular extracellular fluid
It circumstance disintegrates once dissolved for mineral water and also reassembles any time a the water evaporates.
NaK together with 77% potassium will be eutectic together with offers typically the most competitive melting place connected with any NaK alloys within −12.6 °C.69]