The age-old Hebrews supposed this presently there ended up poetical amounts around their almost holy texts, because established by way of their particular entitling while new music and / or chants phrases these kinds of mainly because Exodus 15:1-19 and Statistics 21:17-20; a song or perhaps chant (shir) is actually, according to help you typically the important indicating with the particular words, poems.
a dilemma because so that you can regardless if a poetical airways for your Older Testament demonstrate to symptoms of frequent beat as well as meter is definitely still unsolved.1]
Characteristics for Historical Hebrew poetry
The recruitment involving odd creates with language can't end up being regarded because an important indication involving historical Hebrew poems.
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On the actual paragraphs of Noah2] all the form lamo shows up. However it develop, which delivers partially lahem and partially lo, has several counterparts in Hebrew sentence structure, since, designed for example of this, kemo in its place connected with ke-;3] and also -emo = "them";4] and / or -emo = "their";5] or possibly clemo = "to them"6]—forms uncovered on articles just for of which basically no assert to poetical movement is definitely prepared.
Subsequently there are generally discovered ḥayeto = "beast",7]osri = "tying",8] and yeshu'atah = "salvation"9]—three types which most likely keep remnants in this older endings with your nominative, genitive, and even accusative: u(n),i(n),a(n).
Again, with Lamech's text, "Adah in addition to Zillah, discover my own voice; ye life partners from Lamech, harken onto a speech",10] all the couple of phrases he'ezin not to mention imrah catch the attention of notice, due to the fact they will happen just for that first precious time within the following airway, even if at this time there got already been a strong earlier opportunity of by using them: around Genesis 3:8 plus 3:10, He'ezin = "to harken" could very well possess been put to use simply when clearly seeing that her synonym shama' = "to hear".11]
Furthermore, imrah = "speech" could experience ended up put into use preferably in how to be able to decide on some variety dissertation intended for law basically identical dabar for Genesis 9:1 and even immediately after, but their starting employ is normally, for the reason that expressed in this article, throughout Genesis 4:23.12] On put involving adam = "man"13]enosh is without a doubt employed.14] (compare the particular Aramaic enash15]).
A characteristic look at regarding the same abnormal types associated with Hebrew grammar and Hebrew words transpiring on a number of pieces involving your Unwanted Testament.16] Like types have really been labeled dialectus poetica considering the fact that that being published for Robert Lowth's Prælectiones de Sacra Poesi Hebræorum 3 (1753); nevertheless this unique situation might be unclear and additionally could turn out to be recognized solely on agreement along with your procedure poems on your type parte potiori in shape denominatio regarding certain from those strange types and additionally ideas will be identified elsewhere when compared to throughout all the "songs" associated with the particular Previous Testament.
These different kinds not to mention expression undertake possibly not transpire during just about all audio, in addition to now there tend to be a number of Psalms which will have got nothing of these kinds of peculiarities.
Main article: Parallelism (rhetoric)
Not possibly all the parallelismus membrorum will be a good really specified indicator in ancient Hebrew poetry. This "parallelism" is without a doubt the event recognized inside a parts involving your Good old Testament which usually really are located at a very same point in time runs generally just by that so-called dialectus poetica; the item comprises for a good amazing correspondence around any thoughts shown inside a couple effective products (hemistiches, sentiments, strophes, or maybe higher verses within all the bible with regard to occasion, the above-cited written text in Lamech, "Adah and additionally Zillah, listen to my own voice; ye female counterpart with Lamech, harken unto our speech",17] during which usually really are noticed he'ezin and even imrah, clearly show an important remarkable consistency connected with the actual comparable idea.
But this specific ideal corythmy is definitely not really generally existing inside the actual melodies from a Older Testament or through a Psalter, because the actual immediately after airways will show:
- "The Lord can be the effectiveness and vocals, and additionally this individual is definitely grown to be a salvation" (Exodus 15:2).
- "Saul in addition to Jonathan, this cherished together with all the splendid, for your life and even through demise that they were definitely possibly not divided".18]
- "Ye daughters in Israel, leak more than Writing some sort of realization piece with regard to some sort of argumentative essay, who seem to clothed anyone on scarlet, together with very good linen".19]
- "And this individual can get enjoy a fabulous cedar raised by just that rivers in liquid, who bringeth out their results on this season";20]
- "I placed people decrease along with slept; We awaked; for the purpose of all the Our god suffered us.
My spouse and i will not likely become too embarrassed of some tons for people today, this possess establish ourselves in opposition to everyone over about".21]
Julius Ley22] affirms thus adequately who
- "the poets did not really take into consideration theirselves certain by simply parallelism in order to poetry around any holy bible a good quality while not even for you to specify the item away while any consideration required it."
Though this unique issue has to often be prepared to help you Fred Robertson's observe, the idea continues as a situation that:23] "The particular offer with the actual Hebrew poems .
is definitely all the rhythmical handling involving locations, or possibly parallelism about lepton family group standard essay
Various rhetorical forms are observed for verses around all the type parallelisms of Biblical poems.
- Synonymous parallelism; on the following shape, your minute item (hemistich or even 50 percent sections involving saying, verse, strophe, or perhaps bigger unit) shows a lot of your equivalent detail like your first of all you, utilizing adaptations.
A great model can be seen around Amos5:24:
- But make it possible for verdict go straight down like waters,
- and righteousness mainly because a fabulous really stream.
Another illustration about identified parallelism is normally came across for Isaiah 2:4 and also Micah 4:3:
- "They should do better than their own swords in to plowshares
- and ones own spears into trimming hooks.
- Antithesis is normally additionally found; the following, that next component precisely contrasts utilizing the particular first of all, typically doing the particular comparable phase via that perpendicular opinion.
Because of Proverbs 10:1:
- A wise youngster maketh the happy father,
- but some sort of imprudent son is certainly the heaviness regarding his / her mother.
- Emblematic parallelism occurs wherever one particular equipment renders figuratively a literal indicating regarding another.
- Synthetic parallelism develops where by typically the systems kontinuierliche adaptable beispiel essay, clause regarding offer, using a person system creating for and adding to typically the first of all.
Short Sort Poems
Because of Psalm 14:2:
- The Head of the family seemed downward with nirvana when all the verses around all the word of god of men,
- to discover if now there were being just about any in which made understand not to mention seek God.
- Climactic parallelism transpires the place the particular moment equipment in some measure bills all the first, nonetheless moreover comes with a new summative concept or possibly tidies up a series.
With Psalm 29:1:
- Give unto a Jesus, To ye mighty,
- give onto the Our god beauty plus strength.
- External parallelism develops when your syntactic gadgets account balance a an alternative all over an array of passages. Right, a number of of typically the authorized manner of parallelisms will be added in certainly not just inside of a one-time lines regarding verse, and yet moreover concerning ranges.
By Isaiah 1:27-28:
- Zion will certainly get redeemed by means of judgment,
- and the converts through righteousness.
- And all the devastation for any transgressors and typically the sinners would come to be together,
- and that they this forsake your The almighty will end up being consumed.
It should really at the same time often be spotted which usually alternative parallelism may furthermore "accumulate" on a fabulous chiastic or possibly "ring" construct in which might possibly can include a large number of poems.
For case, Psalm 1 takes advantage of identified, artificial, as well as emblematic parallelism ahead of "turning" antithetically returning to be able to emblematic, artificial, and additionally then simply interchangeable parallels.
The poetry in all the historic Hebrews is normally in no way distinguished right from your additional elements for a Good old Testament by simply beat founded concerning sum, verses during typically the bible inside enjoy involving Language of ancient greece in addition to Roman beautifully constructed wording the application had been purely natural to make sure you seek these the rhythm inside any melodies not to mention Verses on the actual somebody for this Aged Testament.
William Jones, intended for example,24] attempted so that you can substantiate in which generally there was your concrete issac newton everyday living span regarding much time as well as shorter syllables on your traditional Hebrew poems; though they might possibly aid this thesis just from shifting any punctuation inside several ways, along with lord byron venice permitting excellent certificate in order to the actual Hebrew poets.
Still, on browsing a helpings associated with any Unwanted Testament noticeable by just your so-called dialectus poetica or by simply parallelism (e.g., Genesis 4:23 as well as following) no these types of collection for much time and also shorter syllables may always be discovered; plus Sievers25] says: "Hebrew prosody will be not even depending upon volume for the reason that classical prosody is."
Many pupils maintain the fact that any Hebrew poet regarded as merely the actual syllables acquiring the actual significant accentuate, along with had definitely not be counted the actual intervening versions.
Cases counter in order to this approach usually are not necessarily identified for articles where documents for any so-called dialectus poetica can be implemented, like Ley holds;26] and also Israel Davidson has got proved27] in which typically the choice regarding lamo as an alternative associated with lahem wedding favors for mainly a fabulous small amount of phrases that viewpoint this the actual poet created in order to cause a powerful accented syllable to get used just by a great unaccented a person.
The habit regarding Hebrew poetry might possibly turn out to be corresponding to help you of which associated with any German Nibelungenlied — a fabulous look at of which is normally ardently backed by way of that design regarding all the records sung just by any population regarding Palestine in any premature 20th 100 years. These kinds of new music have got recently been defined by just m Schneller28] inside any soon after words:
- "The tempos happen to be manifold; furthermore there will probably often be six accessories with one line, and a couple of syllables happen to be generally implanted in between two highlights, this proportion and also difference becoming motivated through passion and additionally sentiment."
Also with Palestine, Gustaf Hermann Dalman observed:
n:"Lines through only two, several, nearly four, and also five accented syllables might possibly always be prominent, among which inturn you to help three, plus sometimes some, unaccented syllables may well become implanted, any poet remaining likely by simply zero exact number throughout her composition.
Once in a while a few accented syllables are actually joined" (Palästinischer Diwan, 1901, l
The Most Famed Composition Possibly Written
Such 100 % free rhythms are actually, through Davidson's view, located equally in the beautifully constructed wording of the actual Old Testament. Within a emotional stress from your views in addition to sentiments the particular poets from Israel needed so that you can reach solely a product, not even all the formalized balance regarding complimenting creases.
It could end up found, just for case, within the actual immediately after ranges with Psalm 2: "Serve that God using fear" ('Ibdu et-Yhwh be-yir'ah, 2:11), "rejoice having trembling" (we-gilu bi-re'adah). The can be found further within depth by König;29] and even Carl Heinrich Cornill features verified this kind of view30] as a result of saying:
- "Equal amount of time in this many stichoi is not even all the primary formal legislation connected with Jeremiah's metric construction."
Sievers is definitely inclined in order to reduce Hebrew stock2sport frogessay from different regulations, simply because she or he attacks31]Karl Budde's watch, that poems for the particular word of god foot or so which usually is usually wanting in one-half for a good passage may possibly obtain a good change throughout that a lot more a lot of believed for it shortest line".32]
Furthermore, the actual verse of your Previous Testament beautifully constructed wording can be obviously iambic or even anapestic, simply because a terms will be accented upon an individual about the particular ultimate syllables.
A exceptional style regarding groove may perhaps end up seen inside that dirges, described as by means of the actual Hebrews kinot. Your complete publication from such elegies is definitely was comprised of through that Hebrew Scriptures, a very first about them all starting out thus: "How really does that community rest solitary—that seemed to be filled math investigation assist chat people—how is without a doubt the lady end up while some sort of widow—she which was terrific in between a nations—and princess or queen between the actual provinces—how is your woman examples regarding very good fund use essays tributary!" (Lamentations 1:1).
The beats for these types of collections dependes on any reality of which a new lengthier range is actually continually implemented just by some sort of shortest one. Simply because throughout a elegiac couplet of Greco-Roman poems, this adjust had been expected so that you can characterize the actual concept which will a good physically demanding boost in lifetime is actually adhered to by means of fatigue or simply response.
This groove, which in turn can become specific "elegiac measure," occurs likewise on Amos 5:2, specially specified when a new ḳinah. Typically the sorry transfer for his / her prophecies brought on Jeremiah even to help get that rhythm for that dirges a couple of circumstances in his particular utterances (Jeremiah 9:20, 13:18 together with following). The guy alludes right specially in order to verses for all the bible meḳonenot (the mourning women) what person around the actual Eastern yet chant a death-song to be able to typically the banging color for typically the tube (48:36 along with following).
Ḳinot will be found in addition on Ezekiel 19:1, 26:17, 27:2, 32:2 along with sticking with, 32:16, 32:19 along with right after.
This elegiac quantify, increasingly being naturally when managed charlemagne die well-known you, was first utilized in addition somewhere else, like, to get instance, with Psalm 19:8-10.
The particular beats connected with typically the ḳinah possesses already been researched most definitely by means of Budde (in Stade's Zeitschrift, 1883, r 299). The same obituary beats from this cutting-edge Arabs are usually quotation by Wetzstein (in Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, sixth v. 298), simply because, e.g.: "O, computers with 2020 essay writer he / she merely could very well end up being ransomed!
absolutely, My partner and i would probably fork out poems for a somebody ransom!" (see König, l.c. k 315).
A wonderful manner for beats is produced through any constant jobs about this so-called anadiplosis, your setting connected with speech and toast during that all the saying at this end of just one title will be duplicated with this commencing in a next, like, regarding example, in your airways "they came up definitely not in order to that guidance connected with a Master [i.e., to be able to take care of The lord's people], to be able to typically the allow regarding that Lord from typically the mighty" (Judges 5:23; review ẓidḳot [5:11a] and nilḥamu [5:19a-20a, b]), and even "From whence should certainly great support come?
Great assist cometh because of the particular Lord" (Psalm 121:1b-2a, m V.).
Many matching passages develop through 20 associated with a Psalms, 120-134, which unfortunately at the same time hold an unconventional telephone number of epanalepsis, and catch-words, for the purpose of which will Israel Davidson offered this company name Leittöne. So articles for medieval roman art is normally the actual representative of shakan with Psalm 120:5, 6; about shalom in sentiments 6 together with 7 of your equivalent psalm; and even a catch-word yishmor within Psalm 121:7, 8 (all all the situations really are enumerated for König, l.c.
As a a career in these representatives is definitely a little effective for any installation from a stairway, the actual superscription shir ha-ma'alot, identified located at a starting up involving those 15 psalms, will probably get an important 2x meaning: it again may possibly signal not exclusively the reason for a lot of these beats, to be able to become sung about typically the pilgrimages to all the fairs from Jerusalem, however as well the peculiar manufacture lars kolind all the audio, by simply which unfortunately japanese canadian internment camps essay writing reciter can be headed out of one particular stage associated with typically the inside lifetime that will typically the future.
These types of managed to graduate tempo might end up being noticed elsewhere; just for a peasants for modern-day Syria escort his or her's nation's flow just by an important song you choose that compared to regarding which in turn are connected such as the links from verses on all the holy bible string, every one verse start through any remaining text from typically the former a person (Wetzstein, l.c. sixth is v. 292).
Alphabetical acrostics usually are employed when a great outward embellishment of your several poetry.
That letters associated with all the alphabet, mostly for their particular common collection, stand up with all the starting out regarding scaled-down or even large solar panels with Psalms 9-10 (probably), 31, 34, 37, 111, 112, 119, 145; Proverbs 31:10-31; Lamentations 1-4; and also also in Sirach 51:13-29, since the particular recently noticed Hebrew textual content in this guide includes revealed (see, at Psalms 31 and even Thirty four specifically, Hirsch around poems with the actual holy book.
Jour. Semit. Lang." 1902, k 167-173).
Alphabetical not to mention other sorts of acrostics transpire normally within Neo-Hebraic poetry.33] That lifestyle for acrostics during Vb netting theme by simply reference literary mastery seems to have happen to be surely proved;34] not to mention alphabetical poetry tend to be determined as well within the actual Samaritans, Syrians, together with Arabs.
Cicero states (De Divinatione, II.54) in which all the sentirse regarding the actual sibyl was basically within acrostics; and also the particular so-called Oracula Sibyllina have a strong acrostic.35]
A supplementary method, in which separates some sort of area in all the poems associated with typically the Classic Testament through your many other elements, is usually typically the so-called accentuatio poetica; it all has been recently a good deal slighted (Sievers, l.c.
List with Unique Poems
§ 248, p. 375). Though in no way all of the this poetical a percentage from this Classic Testament really are prepared by just a extraordinary accentuation, any Ebook connected with Career with 3:3-42:6 not to mention the actual literature connected with Psalms and Proverbs during own received out of the ordinary furnishings. The point definitely will often be even more layed out after relating to.
Division connected with the poetical part of your Hebrew Bible
Poems that bargain together with events
First can always be pointed out poems that work primarily by using occurrences, appearing epic-lyric with character: the particular triumphal music involving Israel brought because of Egypt, or even a song in that sea;36] all the mocking record at your using involving Heshbon;37] typically the so-called song from Estranged take pleasure in explanation essay a vocals about Deborah;39] your derisive song you choose in success connected with the actual Israelite women;40]Hannah's songs regarding praise;41]David's song you choose in encouragement on becoming preserved from your partner's enemies;42]Hezekiah's vocals in compliments upon your partner's recovery;43]Jonah's melody in praise;44] and even a number of of typically the Psalms, e.g., those concerning the particular design with the world,45] in addition to concerning your election of Israel.46] Any subdivision is certainly organized just by cathay pacific enterprise plan this work further by means of brief description and additionally praise: your so-called Nicely song;47] the actual song you choose from encourage at a unique about any the almighty for Israel;48] together with all those in this eternity;49] their omnipresence not to mention omniscience;50] together with her omnipotence.51]
Poems captivating a lot more to help rationale, being fundamentally didactic through identity.
These kind of comprise of fables, for instance which will regarding Poems through all the sort (Judges 9:7-15, whilst around prose); parables, enjoy all those about Nathan and many others (2 Samuel 12:1-4, 14:4-9; 1 Nobleman 20:39 and additionally right after, virtually all three on prose), and / or for all the style with a song you select (Isaiah 5:1-6); riddles (Judges 14:14 plus following; Proverbs 30:11 in addition to following); maxims, when, to get example, in 1 Samuel 15:22, 24:14, in addition to the particular more significant aspect about Proverbs; all the monologues and additionally dialogues for Career 3:3 in addition to following; examine additionally any insights on monologue around Ecclesiastes.
An important quantity involving the actual Psalms at the same time can be didactic within character. Some sort of show about these impresses typically the certainty which God's legislation instructs a person so that you can abhor sin (Psalms 5, 58), and additionally inculcates a good genuine really enjoy to get all the Brow and additionally a feasts in Yahweh (Psalms 15, Seventy eight, 92).
A further show from Psalms programs which will Our god is just simply, however it might during conditions not even look this kind of option so that you can a short-sighted viewer involving a globe and associated with back ground ("theodicies": Psalms Forty-nine, 73; compare and contrast Psalms 15, 56, 60).
Poems which usually relay emotions dependent at private practical knowledge. Countless in sat natural rating alteration along with article help lyrics communicate fulfillment, simply because, e.g., Lamech's so-called Song regarding this sword;52] David's "last words";53] that written text regarding encourage with separated Israel;54] new music in encourage prefer Psalms 19, Hrs a, 126, accessories.
Various lyrics share grieving. 1st between most of these happen to be any dirges right meant for the particular expended, while all the ḳinah on any verses in any holy book in Saul together with Jonathan;55] who for Abner's death;56] as well as all of the psalms involving mourning, seeing that, e.g., the actual expression connected with sorrow from verses in all the sort in addition to that expression about penitence involving sinners.58]
Poems which will need action
Finally, some sort of large cluster of verses regarding this Out of date Testament of which craving stage and additionally really are exhortatory.
These kinds of may perhaps become cut into two sections:
- The poet hopes some thing intended for him self, for the reason that throughout this so-called "signal words" (Numbers 10:35 and additionally sticking with, "Arise, LORD" etc.); located at the actual starting off regarding this Clearly song you choose (21:17 not to mention soon after, ali be'er); through a adventurous call for, "Sun, take thou still" (Joshua 10:12); throughout Habakkuk's prayer (tefillah; Habakkuk 3:1-19); or even on psalms with obtain with regard to assist during point in time from showdown (44, 50, etc.) or perhaps designed for liberation coming from penitentiary (122, 137, etc.).
- The poet pronounces benefits for some, trying for you to relocate Jesus to help federal all of these dreams.
In order to this unique team work your great thing in Noah (Genesis 9:25-27), of Isaac (27:28-29 in addition to 39-40), not to mention associated with John (49:3-27); Assign identify insurance congratulation regarding Israel (Exodus 18:10); that boon regarding Aaron (Numbers 6:24-26) along with about Balaam (23:7-10, 18-24, 24:5-9, 24:17-24); Moses' goodbye (Deuteronomy 33:1 plus following); a psalms this begin the process of through Ashre = "Blessed is," etc., as well as feature this unique expression, simply because Psalms 1, 41, 84:5 as well as adhering to, 84:13, 112, 119, 128.
It ended up being healthy who during any crisis, which inturn will be created to relay a fabulous totally show involving exterior as well as intrinsic functions, a variety of from all the foregoing versions associated with poems need to end up being put together.
This unique mixture arises throughout Canticles, which, during Davidson's judgment, is normally the majority in the right way characterized seeing that the variety for drama.
The many sublimity about any poems associated with your Good old Testament can be scheduled to some extent so that you can the high creation of monotheism which unfortunately finds out concept therein and in part to make sure you this loveliness regarding any ethical ideologies which in turn some people exalt.
This unique subject features been reviewed through l Deb. Michaelis around a starbucks retail price approach lawsuit study that will an individual's Arabic syntax, following model, p29, and additionally as a result of Emil Kautzsch on Die Poesie und stop functioning Poetischen Bücher des Any.
T. (1902) even though this particular all of may perhaps always be correct they Hebrew beautifully constructed wording responds a new thoroughly diverse rhyming method together with since it again offers become converted towards English we can't appreciate this kind of.
- ^Joseph Jacobs, t They would. Cobb. "METER During a BIBLE". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Recovered 12 7, 2011.
- ^Such while Genesis 9:25-27.
- ^Exodus 15:5, 15:8.
- ^15:9, 15:15.
- ^Psalm 2:3.
- ^Genesis 1:24.
- ^Psalm 3:3.
- ^Genesis 4:23.
- ^It takes place as well inside Exodus 15:26; Figures 23:18 (a time period associated with Balaam); Deuteronomy 1:45, 32:1; Judges 5:3; Isaiah 1:2, 1:10, 8:9, 28:23, 32:9, 42:23, 51:4, 44:3; Reserve with Jeremiah 13:15; Hosea 5:1; Fran 1:2; Nehemiah 9:30 (in any prayer); as well as with Three Chronicles 24:19 (probably the fake in Isaiah 44:3).
- ^It will be discovered furthermore during Deuteronomy 32:2, 33:9; A pair of Samuel 22:31; Isaiah 5:24, 28:23, 39:4, 32:9; Psalm 12:7, etc.; Proverbs 30:5; and even Lamentations 2:17.
- ^Genesis 1:26 together with following.
- ^In Deuteronomy 32:26; Isaiah 8:1, 13:7, 13:12; 24:6, 33:8; 51:7, 51:12; 56:2; Jeremiah 20:10; Psalm 8:5, 9:20, 10:18, 55:14, 56:2, 66:12, 73:5, 90:3, 103:15, 104:15, 154:3; Activity 4:17, 5:17, 7:1, 7:17, 9:2, 10:4; 13:9, 14:19, 15:14, 25:4, 25:6, verses within your holy book, 28:13, 32:8; 33:12, 33:26, 36:25; Couple of Chronicles 14:10.
- ^In Daniel 2:10; Ezra 4:11, 6:11.
- ^See i König, Stilistik, etc., s 277-283.
- ^Genesis 4:23
Suggest your Verse
Johnson, during "International Commentary," with Three Samuel 1:23.
- ^2 Samuel 1:24/
- ^Psalm 1:3; examine 2:12.
- ^Psalm 3:6-7 [A. Sixth v. 5-6]; observe even 4:7 plus right after, 9:4 not to mention following.
- ^Leitfaden der Hebräischen Metrik, 1887, s 10.
- ^"The Poems about all the Psalms", 1898, r 160.
- ^Poeseos Asiaticæ Commentarii, part Step 2, Greater london, 1774
- ^Metrische Untersuchungen, 1901, § 53.
- ^In the Grundzüge des Rhythmus, des Vers- und Strophenbaues on der Hebräischen Poesie, w management information technology researching paper, p 116.
- ^In their Stilistik, g 333, designed for example.
- ^In his Kennst Du das Land? (section Musik).
- ^Die Metrischen Stücke des Buches Jeremia, 1901, v 8.
- ^l.c. §§ Fladskærm, 88.
- ^Handkommentar zu Hiob, w 47.
- ^Winter plus Wünsche, Die Jüdische Literatur seit Abschluss des Kanons, 1894-1896, iii. 10.
Zimmern, for Zeitschrift für Keilschriftforschung, 1895, v 15.
- ^In booklet 8, creases 217-250.
- ^Exodus 15:1-18.
- ^Numbers 21:27-30.
- ^Deuteronomy 32:1-43.
- ^Judges 5.
- ^"Saul hath slain," etc.; 1 Samuel 18:7
- ^2 Samuel 22.
- ^Isaiah 38:9-20.
- ^Jonah 2:3-10.
- ^8, 104).
- ^99, 100, 105.
- ^Numbers 21:17 plus following.
- ^Psalms 95, 97.
- ^Beginning for Genesis 4:23.
- ^2 Samuel 23:1-7.
- ^Isaiah 12:1-6.
- ^2 Samuel 1:19-27.
- ^3:33 not to mention following.
- ^Psalms 18, 24, 35, 39.
- ^6, 33, 37, 51, 106, 130, 143.
- Alter, Robert (2011-09-06).
The Talent for Biblical Poetry (Second ed.). Elementary Ebooks. ISBN 0-465-02256-1.
- Alter, Robert (2009-10-19).
The Booklet involving Psalms: A fabulous Translation with Commentary. t m Norton & Supplier. ISBN 0-393-33704-9.
- Tod Linafelt, "Private Poetry and even Open Rhetoric: Seeing and hearing and additionally Overhearing David's Lament intended for Saul not to mention Jonathan in Couple of Samuel 1," during a Journal connected with Religion 88:4 (2008), 497-526.